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Title: Technological and community-based methods to reduce mycotoxin exposure
Authors: Alberts, JF 
Lilly, M 
Rheede, JP 
Burger, Hester-Mari 
Shephard, Gordon Seymour 
Gelderblom, W.C.A. 
Keywords: Mycotoxins;Exposure;Reduction;Technology;Community-based methods
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal: Food Control 
Abstract: In developing countries the enforcement of compliance to detailed mycotoxin regulations ensures protection of the population from adverse health effects of mycotoxin exposure. In low-income or developing countries mycotoxin regulations are either lacking or poorly enforced which create scenarios where mycotoxin exposures occur above levels set by health regulatory bodies. Population groups that are the worst affected include subsistent maize growing farmer communities where mono-cereal crops are cultivated and locally consumed, and mycotoxin contamination are not monitored. Other factors that aggravate the situation include the consumption of highly mycotoxin contaminated unprocessed maize, the lack of knowledge about the adverse effects as well as traditional uses of maize products not intended for human consumption during periods of food insecurity. These scenarios require ingenious ways to reduce mycotoxin exposure in poor rural communities where access to sophisticated mycotoxins reduction techniques is not available or practically viable. Although community-based and culturally acceptable methods have, to some extent, been adapted the efficacy thereof varies due to the lack of sufficient training. Integration of these methods with more sophisticated technological methods is envisaged, and will be based on a better understanding of mycotoxin biosynthesis and fungus-host interactions on a molecular level. In addition, other methods which include the detoxification of mycotoxins utilising degradation enzymes, clay adsorbents, utilisation of non-toxigenic fungal strains and resistant maize cultivars to fungal infections are just a few approaches under scrutiny. The introduction of good agriculture practices and storage techniques and the identification of critical control points during hazard analyses need to be further explored. Introduction of mycotoxin monitoring programs and validated screening procedures to monitor exposure should be a priority in the future, to facilitate community-based and effective intervention programmes of mycotoxin reduction.
ISSN: 0956-7135
Appears in Collections:HWSci - Journal Articles (DHET subsidised)

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