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Title: Fractionation mobility and multivariate statistical evaluation of metals in marine sediments of Cape Town Harbour, South Africa.
Authors: Okoro, HK 
Fatoki, Olalekan S 
Adekola, Folahan A 
Ximba, Bhekumusa J 
Snyman, Reinette G 
Keywords: speciation;mobility;heavy metals;Cape Town Harbour;marine sediments;principal component analysis
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Source: Okoro, H.K., Fatoki, O.S., Adekola, F.A., Ximba, B.J. & Snyman, R.G. 2014. Fractionation, mobility and multivariate statistical evaluation of metals in marine sediments of Cape Town Harbour, South Africa. Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability, 26(3):126-138.
Abstract: Distribution of possible chemical forms of Al, Si, Sn, Pb, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cd and Cu in marine sediments of Cape Town harbour was investigated using a modified Tessier’s sequential extraction procedure and ICP-MS and ICP-AES for heavy metals determination. The mean fractions for all metals at all locations were: 1.5–7196 mg kg-1 for Si, 7.79–7266 mg kg-1 for Al, 161–639 mg kg-1 for Cu, 19–41978 mg kg-1 for Fe, 2.83–5864 mg kg -1 for Zn, 1.45–13.26 mg kg-1 for Cd, 9.87–223 mg kg-1 for Sn, 11.98–979 mg kg -1 for Pb and 0.13–5.93 mg kg-1 for Hg. Si, Al and Zn were mostly associated with Fe–Mn oxides, whereas Sn and Hg were mainly bound to residual and organic matter. Pb existed mainly in the residual and iron/manganese oxide phases while Cd was evenly distributed in all the five phases. The loading plots of heavy metals bound to the various chemical forms, as well as Pearson correlation coefficients, enabled the determination binding relationship. Pb, Sn and Hg exhibited similar binding behaviour which indicated an anthropogenic point source from wastes from the ship maintenance workshop, and the presence of Sn in the organic phase can be identified with the use of anti-fouling paints at the harbour, whereas Al, Fe, Si, Cu and Zn would probably be of natural origin. Lastly Cd probably came from a diffuse pollution sources in the harbour due to its unique binding characteristic. The mobility of heavy metals varied depending on location and the heavy metal type. The mobility of metals followed the order: Si > Zn > Fe > Cu> Al> Cd> Pb > Sn > Hg. The high percentage of Cd and Pb in the bioavailable forms suggested the need to keep close surveillance on these metals because of their high toxicity.
ISSN: 0954-2299
Appears in Collections:Appsc - Journal Articles (not DHET subsidised)
Prof. Bhekumusa Jabulani Ximba
Prof. Olalekan S. Fatoki

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