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Title: Human exposure, biomarkers, and fate of organotins in the environment
Authors: Okoro, HK 
Fatoki, Olalekan S 
Adekola, Folahan A 
Ximba, Bhekumusa J 
Snyman, Reinette G 
Opeolu, Beatrice O 
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Springer
Source: Okoro, H.K., Fatoki, O.S., Adekola, F.A., Ximba, B.J., Snyman, R.G. & Opeolu, B.O. 2011. Human exposure, biomarkers, and fate of organotins in the environment. In Whitcare, D.M. (ed). Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. New York: Springer; 213:27-54.
Abstract: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are organic derivatives of tin (Sn4+) and are characterized by the presence of covalent bonds between three carbon atoms and a tin atom. The organotins are designated as mono-, di-, tri-, or tetra-organotin compounds and have the general formula (n-C4H9), Sn–X, where X is an anion or a group linked covalently through a hetero-atom (Dubey and Roy 2003; Okoro et al. 2011). Organotin pollution in the aquatic environment is of global concern; two triorganotin compound groups, the tributyltins and triphenyltins, are toxic to aquatic life (Fent 1996) and are used worldwide not only as biocides in antifouling paints but also as preserving agents for wood and timber, and as agricultural fungicides. These uses result in direct release to water, with consequential uptake and accumulation in aquatic fauna (Harino et al. 2000).
ISBN: 978-1-4419-9860-6
Appears in Collections:Appsc - Books / Book Chapters
Prof. Bhekumusa Jabulani Ximba
Prof. Olalekan S. Fatoki

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