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Title: Households water quality in O’Kiep-South Africa and community perception of related health risks
Authors: Erdogan, I. G. 
Fosso-Kankeu, E. 
Ntwampe, Seteno Karabo Obed 
Waanders, F. B. 
Hoth, N. 
Rand, Andrew 
Farrar, T. J. 
Keywords: Drinking water supply systems (DWSS);Drinking water quality;O’Kiep;Toxins;Health risk indicators
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Desalination Publications
Source: Erdogan, I. G., Fosso-Kankeu, E., Ntwampe, S. K. O. et al. 2019. Households water quality in O’Kiep-South Africa and community perception of related health risks. Desalination and Water Treatment, 167: 145–155. []
Journal: Desalination and Water Treatment 
Abstract: South Africa faced challenges related to potable water quality that has periodically deteriorated, coupled with inconsistent supply of tap water (TW) to households. These challenges are a primary exasperation in the arid O’Kiep region, where the community has few alternatives regarding drinkable water sources. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of drinking TW supplied to the O’Kiep community, focusing on health risks associated with the ingestion of such water. The study included both the quantitative assessment of water quality parameters and a qualitative assessment of adverse human health outcomes experienced by the residents. Furthermore, disease patterns which were associated with ingestion of supplied water were also identified and subjected to appropriate statistical data analyses. Due to the inadequate drinking water supply and shortages in O’Kiep, households often are dependent on water tankers and commercially bottled water, amongst other potential sources of drinkable water. Water samples (n = 53) from O’Kiep’ drinking water supply system (DWSS), that is, n = 3 were collected from source and (n = 50) point-of-use (TW) while the questionnaires were simultaneously administered in households. None of the statistical models suggested physicochemical properties as predictors of any of the health symptoms. Approximately, 88% of community members indicated that the water supplied is often turbid, while a high number of people with teeth discolouration (72%) are living in the area and experience diarrhoea-like symptoms, which are likely to be associated with the ingestion of toxin-contaminated water. This was confirmed by some physiochemical parameters quantified, that is, low dissolved oxygen of 2.0 mg/L, a high electrical conductivity of 595 mg/L, and SO4 2– and chlorine concentrations of 557 and 47.1 mg/L, respectively, which were not within the range prescribed for drinking water guidelines. Furthermore, a positive confirmatory test indicated the presence of toxins in the water. Therefore, regular monitoring and evaluation of DWSS is essential for this vulnerable community
ISSN: 1944-3994
Appears in Collections:Appsc - Journal Articles (DHET subsidised)

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