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Title: Mycological Analysis and Multimycotoxins in Maize from Rural Subsistence Farmers in the Former Transkei, South Africa
Authors: Shephard, Gordon Seymour 
Burger, HM 
Gambacorta, L 
Krska, R 
Powers, SP 
Rheeder, JP 
Solfrizzo, M 
Sulyok, M 
Visconti, A 
Warth, B 
van der Westhuizen, L 
Keywords: deoxynivalenol;fumonisin;maize;mycotoxin;multimycotoxin;ochratoxin;secondary metabolites;zearalenone
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Source: J. Agric. Food Chem., 2013, 61 (34), pp 8232–8240
Journal: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 
Abstract: Maize harvested in the Centane region of the former Transkei, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, by subsistence farmers has been shown over many seasons to be contaminated with fumonisin mycotoxins. However, there are limited data on the presence of other mycotoxins. Two multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS methods were applied to good and moldy maize samples, as separated by the farmers themselves from the 2011 harvest. One method involved extract cleanup on multitoxin immunoaffinity columns before LC-MS/MS analysis for aflatoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone(ZEN), and T-2 and HT-2 toxins. The other method was based on a “dilute-and-shoot” approach for the above mycotoxins and a wide range of other fungal secondary metabolites. Both methods showed high incidences of fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) in good maize (100% for both by the first method, means were 2083 and 927 μg/kg for the two analogues; 93% for both by the second method, positive means of 2764 and 1050 μg/kg, respectively). All samples of moldy maize were contaminated (mean FB1 of 27.64 and 35.98 mg/kg, respectively; mean FB2 of 10.58 and 14.14 mg/kg, respectively). Comparison of the two methods for FB1 and FB2 over the entire range of samples gave R2 values 0.9144 and 0.8859, respectively. Low levels of DON were found by both methods (positive means of 12 and 4.7 μg/kg in good maize, respectively, and of 14 and 5.8 μg/kg in moldy maize, respectively). ZEN was determined with positive means of 108 and 25 μg/kg in good maize, respectively, and of 111 and 135 μg/ kg in moldy maize, respectively. No aflatoxins, OTA, or T-2 or HT-2 toxins were detected. A wide range of other Fusarium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Penicillium mycotoxins and secondary metabolites were determined.
DOI: 10.1021/jf4021762
Appears in Collections:HWSci - Journal Articles (DHET subsidised)

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