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Title: Introducing low-smoke coal in South Africa
Authors: Lloyd, Philip JD 
Keywords: Coal;Coal distribution;Domestic cooking;Domestic heating;Low-smoke fuel
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: IEEE Xplore
Source: 3-5 April 2018, pp156-159
Conference: 26th International Conf. Domestic Uses Energy, Cape Peninsula University of Technology 
Abstract: The use of coal for domestic cooking and heating has fallen in recent years but is still significant in Mpumalanga, ,Limpopo, the Free State and Gauteng. The coal is burned very inefficiently, which gives rise to copious smoke, particularly during the ignition phase. The resultant smog is all too apparent in the vicinity of townships on the Highveld in winter. It was found possible to pretreat the coal to remove most of the smoke. Replacing coal with low-smoke fuel would require interaction with the coal distribution chain. Accordingly a study was carried out into how the domestic coal was distributed from the mine to the households in the townships. The mines producing coal for the domestic market were identified. The logistics of distribution were quantified, from the mine to the retailer of kg quantities of fuel on the street. There was a mix of road and rail transport. The trade was highly seasonal, which forced the mines to create stockpiles during the summer to meet the winter demand. Understanding the coal distribution chain permitted development of a business plan to produce and distribute a coal-derived low-smoke fuel effectively, with minimal disruption of the existing logistics arrangements, and with clear benefits to the coal miners
Description: Conference Proceeding
ISBN: 978-0-9946759-4-1
Appears in Collections:Eng - Conference Proceedings

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