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Title: Avoiding the use of exhausted drinking water filters: a filter-clock based on rusting iron
Authors: Ndé-Tchoupé, A.I 
Lufingo, M 
Hu, R 
Gwenzi, W 
Ntwampe, Seteno Karabo Obed 
Noubactep, C 
Njau, KN 
Keywords: Adsorptive filtration;Frugal innovation;Permeability loss;Water treatment;Waterborne diseases;Zero-valent iron
Issue Date: 2-Jan-2018
Publisher: MDPI
Source: Ndé-Tchoupé, A.I., Lufingo, M., Hu, R., Gwenzi, W., Ntwampe, S.K.O., Noubactep, C. and Njau, K.N., 2018. Avoiding the use of exhausted drinking water filters: a filter-clock based on rusting iron. Water, 10(5), p.591.
Journal: Water 
Abstract: Efficient but affordable water treatment technologies are currently sought to solve the prevalent shortage of safe drinking water. Adsorption-based technologies are in the front-line of these efforts. Upon proper design, universally applied materials (e.g., activated carbons, bone chars, metal oxides) are able to quantitatively remove inorganic and organic pollutants as well as pathogens from water. Each water filter has a defined removal capacity and must be replaced when this capacity is exhausted. Operational experience has shown that it may be difficult to convince some low-skilled users to buy new filters after a predicted service life. This communication describes the quest to develop a filter-clock to encourage all users to change their filters after the designed service life. A brief discussion on such a filter-clock based on rusting of metallic iron (Fe0) is presented. Integrating such filter-clocks in the design of water filters is regarded as essential for safeguarding public health.
Description: Article
Appears in Collections:Appsc - Journal Articles (DHET subsidised)

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