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Title: Biological sand filter system treating winery effluent for effective reduction in organic load and pH neutralisation
Authors: Holtmana, GA 
Haldenwang, Rainer 
Welza, PJ 
Keywords: Biological sand filter;Chemical oxygen demand;Constructed wetland;pH neutralisation;Treatment;Organics;Winery wastewater
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal: Journal of Water Process Engineering 
Abstract: Wineries generate 0.2–14 L of wastewater per litre of wine produced, which is often used for irrigation or discharged into aquatic systems. To mitigate adverse environmental impacts, there is a need for low cost wastewater treatment options. The novel biological sand filtration system described in this pilot study is a sustainable off-grid modular system which can be easily retrofitted to current infrastructure. The system was operated with average hydraulic and organic loading rates of 150 Lm−3 and 152 gCOD.m−3 of−1, respectively. Over 762 days of operation, average removal efficiencies of 79% and 77% in terms of chemical oxygen demand and total phenolic concentrations were achieved. In addition, an average 1.8-fold increase in the calcium concentration was achieved, with a concomitant reduction in the sodium adsorption ratio and similar indices. This pilot study also confirmed in a ‘real world’ setting the results of laboratory-based studies where biological sand filters neutralised acidic synthetic winery wastewater and reduced the organic load.
ISSN: 2214-7144
Appears in Collections:Eng - Journal articles (DHET subsidised)

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