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Title: Resistance coefficients for non-Newtonian flows in pipe fittings
Authors: Fester, Veruscha G 
Slatter, Paul 
Alderman, Neil 
Keywords: Non-newtonian flows;Pipe fittings
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: InTech Online Publishers
Source: Rijeka, Croatia: InTech Online Publishers, 2012, pp 151-186,
Abstract: The focus of this chapter is to provide a review of the loss coefficient data for laminar flow of non-Newtonian fluids in pipe fittings. Since the total pressure change in a piping system generally consists of three components: (i) the frictional pressure loss in the pipe, (ii) the frictional pressure loss arising from flow through fittings and (iii) the pressure loss or gain resulting from elevation changes, this review will also deal with laminar and turbulent pipe flow of non-Newtonian fluids and the application of viscometry for flow in pipes and fittings. The rheological models relevant to industrial fluids such as mine tailings and sewage sludges are introduced, with particular emphasis on yield stress, or viscoplastic, fluids. Hooper (1981) presented a two-K method for determining the loss coefficient for laminar and turbulent flow through various fittings and valves. This method consists of two factors, one for laminar flow, K1 and the other for turbulent flow, Kturb. Unlike that for Kturb, there is little data available for K1. Experimental data over the full range of laminar and turbulent flow are presented for flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in various fittings. The experimental procedures for the accurate determination of loss coefficients are described. Current practice for laminar flow through various fittings is to present the loss coefficient as a function of an appropriate Reynolds number. Different Reynolds numbers developed for non-Newtonian fluids have been evaluated to determine their ability to establish the necessary requirement of dynamic similarity for flow of viscoplastic fluids in various fittings. The laminar to turbulent transition in pipe fittings are also discussed. The experimental work done to date on contractions, expansions, valves and orifices is reviewed in addition to similar work published in literature. The magnitude of errors that can be obtained using the incorrect loss coefficient is demonstrated by means of a worked example. This chapter will provide the pipeline design engineer dealing with non-Newtonian fluids with the necessary information critical for energy efficient design.
ISBN: 978-953-51-0187-1
Appears in Collections:Eng - Books / Book Chapters

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